Sericulture is the cultivation of Silk through rearing of Silk worm. It is an agro based industry. It involves the raising of food plants for Silkworm, rearing of Silkworm for production of Cocoons, reeling and spinning of Cocoons for production of yarn etc.
The end product of Sericulture is “Silk”. There are four different types of Silk, each of which is produced by a distinct variety of Silkworm feeding on a specific host plant as furnished below:
|SL No||Name of Silkworm||Name of Host Plants|
|1||Mulberry Silkworm||Jat I nuni|
|2||Muga Silkworm||Som, Soalu|
|3||Eri Silkworm||Castor, Kesseru|
|4||Tassar Silkworm||Asan, Arjun|
Assam is known for producing all the four types of Silk. Sericulture has been practiced in the state from time immemorial, and is proud of traditionally producing Muga and Eri Silks. Muga culture is endemic to erstwhile Assam and Assam is the largest producer of the famous golden Muga Silk in the world.
|Staff position of Supdt. Of Sericulture, South Salmara Mankachar:|
|SL No||Name of Post||Post Occupied||Vacant||Remarks|
|1||Supdt. Of Sericulture||1||-|
|5||Sr. Asstt.||1||-||Attached in ADS office, Dhubri|
|8||M/R Labourer (ECC Hatsingimari)||1||-|
|9||M/R Labourer (CMG, Baghapara)||4||-||2 nos are engaged at DC Office, South Salmara Mankachar|
There are two Centers in South Salmara Mankachar District viz.
1. Eri Concentration Center (ECC), Hatsingimari.
2. Collective Mulberry Garden (CMG), Baghapara.
The ECC, Hatsingimari was established in the year 1985-86. The area of the centre is approximately 3 Hector. There are 900 nos of Kesseru plants covering an area of 2.2 Hector. The main function of ECC, Hatsingimari is to supply Kesseru leaf to the private rearers to rear the Eri Silkworm at their own. Eri Silkworm rearing is also conducted in ECC, Hatsingimari. Besides Kesseru plants almost 400 nos of Som plants are raised covering an area of 0.4 Hector which are about to be ready for rearing. Kesseru and Som nursery are raised every year and proper healthy seedling is supplied to the private rearers to grow food plants for Silkworm rearing.
The CMG Baghapara was established in the year 1992 and the area of the centre is approximately 8.7 hector. The Centre provides Mulberry leaf to private rearers for Silkworm rearing. Though it is a Mulberry centre yet in some portion of the centre around 800 nos of Som seedling were raised during the year 2016-17 which grew vigorously. We are expecting Muga Silkworm rearing to be conducted within three years. A few Kesseru plants are also there. The leaves of Kesseru plants are supplied to the private Eri rearers.
Private Rearers: Mulberry Silkworm rearers rear Silkworm twice a year i.e. as spring and autumn crop. For the Mulberry Silkworm rearing seeds are distributed to the private rearers by Sericulture Demonstrators which are collected from NSSO, Bengaluru through the Director of Sericulture, Assam. During rearing period Sericulture Demonstrator visits the farmer’s house once a week to give necessary technical guidance and then provides marketing assistance to the rearers after harvesting the crops as per departmental programmes.
Similarly Eri Silkworm rearing is conducted four to five times in a year depending upon availability of leaf. There are no Muga rearers in the district. Sericulture Provides gainful employment, economic development and improvement in the quality of life of the people in rural area and therefore it plays an important role in anti poverty programmes and prevents migration of rural people to urban area in search of employment.